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Friday, January 27, 2012

How Do Jehovah's Witnesses View Dancing?

Jehovah's Witnesses base all of their beliefs, their standards for conduct, and organizational procedures on the Bible. The Bible does not outright condemn dancing in itself. In fact, Jesus Christ even told a parable in Luke 15:25 in which dancing was mentioned as part of the occasion at the homecoming of the prodigal son. So Jesus didn't disapprove of dancing in itself; or else he wouldn't have mentioned it as part of a worthy celebration. Most importantly, God does not condemn the act of dancing itself. In fact, Ecclesiastes 3:4 mentions that "There is a time to skip about ["the time for dancing," TEV]."

Dancing in the Bible That Was Acceptable to God

The Bible has often mentioned dancing:

After Israel witnessed the demonstration of God's power in destroying the Egyptians, they expressed their thanks and praise to God through singing and dancing. When the men joined Moses in singing a victory song, Miriam led the women in dances to the accompaniment of tambourines:

"And Mir´i·am the prophetess, Aaron's sister, proceeded to take a tambourine in her hand; and all the women began going out with her with tambourines and in dances." (Ex 15:20)

There was also the account of Jephthah's daughter's victory dance. She came out to join her father in praising God for having given the Ammonites into his hands:

"Finally Jeph´thah came to Miz´pah to his home, and, look! his daughter coming out to meet him with tambourine playing and dancing!" (Judges 11:34)

Other dances motivated by deep religious feelings were included... the women of Israel, who danced to the music of lutes and tambourines and welcomed Saul and David back after God's victory over the Philistines. (1 Sam. 18:6, 7; 21:11; 29:5)

... in parts of certain annual festivals in connection with the worship of God. (Judges 21:19-21, 23) a general means of honoring and praising God: "Praise Jah, you people! . . . Let them praise his name with dancing. With the tambourine and the harp let them make melody to him." "Praise him with the tambourine and the circle dance."—Ps 149:1, 3; 150:4. King David on the occasion when the ark of the covenant finally arrived in Jerusalem: "And David was dancing around before Jehovah with all his power, . . . leaping and dancing around before Jehovah." (2 Sam. 6:14-17)

Dancing in the Bible That Was NOT Acceptable to God

However, even though dancing in itself is not wrong, some in the Bible participated in things that God does disapprove of through dancing (i.e. pagan worship, being sexually suggestive). There is quite a contrast between the acceptable dancing mentioned in the above paragraphs (dancing "to God's glory") and the pagan dancing that is also mentioned in the Bible. For instance, when the Israelites made the golden calf, they then participated in a form of pagan dancing before their idol, of which God condemned. (Ex. 32:6, 17-19)

Also, the worship of Baal was associated with wild, unrestrained dances. In Elijah's time, the priests of Baal participated in a demonic dance and lacerated themselves with knives as they kept "limping around" the altar. (1 Kings 18:26-29) Other translations describe this "limping around" as a "dance".

The Basic Principle for Christians Concerning Dancing

The basic principle for Christians is to do "all things to God's glory." (1 Cor. 10:31) So Christians need to ask themselves, "Is the type of dancing I am considering to participate acceptable to God? Is the type of dancing I am considering to participate in viewed as sexually suggestive or sensual? Is the type of dancing I am considering to participate in considered as a detraction from my worship to the only true God?"

If the answer to any of the questions above is "yes", then true Christians should avoid those types of dances.

Through the Bible, God has set down principles that should guide a Christian in all his ways which includes the types of dances to participate in. The Bible says at 1 Pet. 1:15 for us to: "Become holy yourselves in ALL your conduct."

Additional Reading:

Dancing (Jehovah's Witnesses United Glossary; Scroll down to "Dancing")

Dancing (Insight-1 pp. 574-575; Watchtower Online Library)

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Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Why Do Jehovah's Witnesses Believe That Jesus is Michael the Archangel?

Before considering the quotes and sources below, it is important to address a large problem that exists where many do not have the proper understanding of what the literal definition of "angel" in the Bible is. Both the Hebrew mal·´akh´ and the Greek ag´ge·los literally mean “messenger.” When spirit messengers are indicated, the words are translated “angels,” but if the reference definitely is to humans, the rendering is “messengers.” (Gen. 16:7; 32:3; Jas. 2:25; Rev. 22:8) Whether human or angelic messengers are meant can be determined by the context.

When Jesus was on earth, he was God's foremost messenger. He was called the "Word" because he was God's Spokesman. (John 12:49, 50; 14:10; 7:16, 17)

Also, Jehovah's Witnesses do not consider that Jesus is just an angel. Scripture suggests that he is the Archangel. Archangel means “chief angel.” And since the term “archangel” occurs in the Bible only in the singular, never in the plural, this suggests that there is only one such angel. Moreover, Jesus is linked with the office of archangel. Regarding the resurrected Lord Jesus Christ, 1 Thessalonians 4:16 states: “The Lord himself will descend from heaven with a commanding call, with an archangel’s voice.” Thus the voice of Jesus is described as being that of an archangel. This Scripture therefore suggests that Jesus himself is the archangel Michael. (For much more on the subject, see the ARCHANGEL category or use the search boxes above.)

Quotes From Scholars Concerning Jesus as Michael the Archangel

Jehovah's Witnesses today are not (and have not been) the only ones to understand Michael to be the archangel who became Jesus on earth. From early Christian writings until now there have been many who have believed this.
The Universal Standard Encyclopedia stated of early Christian scholar Origen (185-254 A. D.) that he was "probably the most accomplished Biblical scholar produced by the early Church". Origen wrote:

* "There are certain creatures, rational and divine, which are called powers [spirit creatures, probably angels]; and of these Christ was the highest and best and is called not only the wisdom of God but also His power." - ANF 10:321-322.

* Back in the early 1800's, Bible scholar Joseph Benson stated that the description of Michael as found in the Bible "manifestly points out the Messiah." 

* Nineteenth-century Lutheran E. W. Hengstenberg agreed that "Michael is no other than Christ."

* Similarly, theologian J. P. Lange, when commenting on Revelation 12:7, wrote: "We take it that Michael . . . is, from the outset, Christ in warlike array against Satan."

* Clarke’s Commentary (Adam Clarke)

Jude :9

“Let it be observed that the word archangel is never found in the plural number in the sacred writings. There can be properly only one archangel, one chief or head of all the angelic host. Nor is the word devil, as applied to the great enemy of mankind, ever found in the plural; there can be but one monarch of all fallen spirits. Michael is this archangel, and head of all the angelic orders; the devil, great dragon, or Satan, is head of all the diabolic orders. When these two hosts are opposed to each other they are said to act under these two chiefs, as leaders; hence in Revelation 12:7, it is said: MICHAEL and his angels fought against the DRAGON and his angels. The word Michael lakym, seems to be compounded of ym mi, who, k ke, like, and la El, God; he who is like God; hence by this personage, in the Apocalypse, many understand the Lord Jesus.”

* The 1599 Geneva Study Bible: Revelation

“12:7 And there was war in heaven: 14 Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels,

“(14) Christ is the Prince of angels and head of the Church, who bears that iron rod….”

* John Gill, A Body of Doctrinal Divinity, Book 7 Chapter 5:

“1b2. Another prophecy in Daniel 12:1-3 respects the second and personal coming of Christ; for he is meant by Michael, who is "as God", as his name signifies, equal to him; the ‘great prince,’ the prince of the kings of the earth, and the head of all principalities and powers.”

John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Daniel 12:1

“Ver. 1.

And at that time shall Michael stand up,.... The Archangel, who has all the angels of heaven under him, and at his command, the Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ;”

And even trinitarian Bible scholar W. E. Vine (“recognized as one of the world’s foremost [Bible] Greek scholars”) tells us that this “voice of the archangel” (1 Thess. 4:16) is apparently “the voice of the Lord Jesus Christ”! - p. 64, An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words.

* The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia:

The earlier Protestant scholars usually identified Michael with the preincarnate Christ, finding support for their view, not only in the juxtaposition of the “child” and the archangel in Rev. 12, but also in the attributes ascribed to him in Daniel” – vol. 3, p. 2048, Eerdmans Publishing, 1984 printing.

* Protestant Reformer John Calvin said regarding "Michael" in its occurrence at Daniel 12:1:

"I embrace the opinion of those who refer this to the person of Christ, because it suits the subject best to represent him as standing forward for the defense of his elect people." - J. Calvin, Commentaries On The Book Of The Prophet Daniel, trans. T. Myers (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979), vol. 2 p. 369.

* John Wesley:

Chapter XII

A promise of deliverance, and of a joyful resurrection, ver. 1 - 4. A conference concerning the time of these events, ver. 5 - 7. An answer to Daniel's enquiry, ver. 8 - 13. For the children - The meaning seems to be, as after the death of Antiochus the Jews had some deliverance, so there will be yet a greater deliverance to the people of God, when Michael your prince, the Messiah shall appear for your salvation. A time of trouble - A the siege of Jerusalem, before the final judgment. The phrase at that time, probably includes all the time of Christ, from his first, to his last coming.

Wesley on Daniel 10:21: "Michael - Christ alone is the protector of his church, when all the princes of the earth desert or oppose it."

* Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758):

Works of Jonathan Edwards, Vol. 2, Ch. 1, “Angels”:

“II. When Lucifer rebelled and set up himself as a head in opposition to God and Christ, and drew away a great number of the angels after him, Christ, the Son of God, manifested himself as an opposite head, and appeared graciously to dissuade and restrain by his grace the elect angels from hearkening to Lucifer’s temptation, so that they were upheld and preserved from eternal destruction at this time of great danger by the free and sovereign distinguishing grace of Christ. Herein Christ was the Saviour of the elect angels, for though he did not save them as he did elect men from the ruin they had already deserved, and were condemned to, and the miserable state they were already in, yet he saved them from eternal destruction they were in great danger of, and otherwise would have fallen into with the other angels. The elect angels joined with him, the glorious Michael, as their captain, while the other angels hearkened to Lucifer and joined with him, and then was that literally true that was fulfilled afterwards figuratively.

Rev. xii. ‘When there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, and prevailed not; neither was there place found any more in heaven. And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.’ ”

* William L. Alexander, Doctor of Divinity, stated:

There seems good reason for regarding Michael as the Messiah. Such was the opinion of the best among the ancient Jews.... With this all the Bible representations of Michael agree. He appears as the Great Prince who standeth for Israel (Dan. xii. I), and he is called "the Prince of Israel" (Dan. x. 21)--William L. Alexander, ed., A Cyclopedia Of Biblical Literature, originally edited by John Kitto, 3d ed. (Edinburgh: A and C Black, 1886). vol. 3, p. 158.

* "The two passages in the New Testament, in which Michael is mentioned, serve to confirm the result already arrived at. That the Michael referred to in Rev. xii. 7 is no other than the Logos, [the Word - the Son of God] has already been proved in my commentary upon that passage." —Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg, Christology of the Old Testament and a Commentary on the Messianic Predictions, 1836-9, Vol. IV, pp. 304-5 (in the T. and T. Clark publication; p. 269 in the Kregel publication).

* Brown's Dictionary of the Bible

on the words 'Michael' and 'Angel' says, that both these words do sometimes refer to Christ; and also affirms that Christ is the Archangel.

* Wood's Spiritual Dictionary

teaches nearly, if not exactly, the same on this subject that Brown's does. The former was a Calvinist, the latter a Methodist.

* Butterworth, Cruden, and Taylor in their concordances, assert that Michael and Angel are both names of Christ.
* Guyse in his Paraphrase on the New Testament, on Rev. xii. 7, acknowledges that many good expositors think that Christ is signified by Michael; and also gives it as his opinion.

* Thomas Scott, in his notes on the Bible, says the Angel that appeared to Hagar when she fled from her mistress, one of the three Angels that appeared to Abraham in the plains of Mamre, the Angel that appeared to Moses in the bush, and the Angel that spoke to the Jews at Bochim, was Jesus Christ: and also asserts that Michael the Archangel is Jesus Christ. See Gen. xvi. 9, 10. Chap. xviii throughout. Exod. iii. 2-7. Judg. ii. 1-5, Dan x. 13, 21. Chap. xii. 1, Rev. xii. 7.

* Highly respected trinitarian Bible scholar, Dr. E. F. Scott, Emeritus Professor at the Union Theological Seminary, wrote:

"The author of Hebrews ... thinks of [Jesus] as an angel, whom God had exalted above all others, investing him with his own majesty and calling him by the name of Son." - p. 726, An Encyclopedia of Religion, 1945 ed.

* And, again, the very trinitarian The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible tells us that at this time the Jewish expectation was that the Christ was

"a pre-existent, heavenly angelic being who, at the end of time, will appear at the side of God as judge of the world [see Acts 7:55-56]." - p. 364, Vol. 3, Abingdon Press, 1962.

* "Angel of the Lord [angel of Jehovah] - occurs many times in the Old Testament, where in almost every instance it means a supernatural personage to be distinguished from Jehovah .... Some feel the pre-incarnate Christ is meant." - p. 39, Today's Dictionary of the Bible (trinitarian), Bethany House Publ., 1982

* "Angel of the Lord. ... Christ's visible form before the incarnation." - p. 40, Smith's Bible Dictionary (trinitarian), Hendrickson Publ.

* "ANGEL OF THE LORD, ... is represented in Scripture as a heavenly being sent by God to deal with men as his personal agent and spokesman [`word'] .... In the NT [which trinitarians agree explains and amplifies the OT] there is no possibility of the angel of the Lord being confused with God. .... mostly when appearing to men he is recognized as a divine being, even though in human form, and is [sometimes] addressed as God" - p. 38, New Bible Dictionary, Tyndale House (trinitarian), 1984 printing.

* "The Angel of the LORD.... Traditional [from 2nd century A. D. (at least)] Christian interpretation has held that this `angel' was a preincarnate manifestation of Christ as God's Messenger-Servant. It may be ..., the angel could speak on behalf of (and so be identified with) the One [Jehovah] who sent him." - footnote for Gen. 16:7 in the highly trinitarian The NIV Study Bible by Zondervan Publishing, 1985.

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Friday, January 20, 2012

What Do Jehovah's Witnesses Understand "Wisdom" to be at Proverbs 8:22-31?

When examining Proverbs 8:22-31, some have argued that this passage isn't talking about Jesus but rather Wisdom itself personified. They further may point out that Wisdom may previously have been referred to in the feminine gender.

However, in Prov. Chapter 8, Wisdom is manifest only by being expressed in some way. God's own wisdom was expressed in creation (Prov. 3:19, 20) but through his Son. Many professed Christian writers of the early centuries of the Common Era understood Prov. 8:22-31 to refer symbolically to God's Son in his pre-human state. In fact, the understanding that "Wisdom" in Prov. 8:22-30 is, in reality, figurative of Jesus in his pre-human existence has always existed in the majority of churches that call themselves Christian. It was commonly noted in the writings of the Church Fathers of the first centuries of Christianity (including such noted scholars as Origen, Irenaeus, Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, etc.) Many Bible scholars (trinitarians included) have even said that this connection was made in the New Testament at 1 Cor. 1:24. (For a list of quotes from trinitarian scholars admitting this, see: Prov. 8:22-30 "Wisdom" and Christ; Examining the Trinity)

Wisdom in the Feminine Gender

It is true that in Hebrew, which assigns gender to its nouns (as do many other languages), the word for "wisdom" is always in the feminine gender. This would continue to be the case even though wisdom is personified and so would not rule out wisdom's being used figuratively to represent God's firstborn Son. For instance, the Greek word for "love" in the expression "God is love" (1 John 4:8) is also in the feminine gender but that does not make God feminine.

Wisdom Used Figuratively, Not Literally

Jehovah God is the Creator of all things. He is uncreated, without beginning (Rev. 4:11). Job 36:26 says, "In number his years are beyond searching." It is impossible to place an age upon him, for there is no starting point from which to measure. Because He is ageless, He is properly called "the Ancient of Days" since His existence stretches endlessly into the past. (Dan. 7:9, 13) And so, since Jehovah God has existed forever, therefore wisdom had to have always existed within Jehovah forever. (Ps. 90:2)

So we could ask those using these trinitarian arguments: If Prov. 8:22-31 is really talking about literal wisdom itself, than how could wisdom even have been "begotten"? How could it have even been "produced", "set up", "created", or "made"? If this was talking about literal wisdom itself, then how could wisdom be "beside" God or "before" Him? How could wisdom be "the one He was specially fond of"?

So instead of literal Wisdom itself (of which God had to already have in order to "beget", "produce", "set up", "create", or "make" anything), when Prov. 8:22 also says that the subject is, "the earliest of his achievements of long ago", this corresponds more to the description of Jesus in Col. 1:15 where it says that he is "the first-born of all creation". Or when Prov. 8:23 says, "From time indefinite I was installed, from the start, from times earlier than the earth", this corresponds more to the description of Jesus in Micah 5:2 where it says that his "origin is from early times, from the days of time indefinite". Or when Prov. 8:22 says, "Jehovah God himself produced me as the beginning of his way," this corresponds more to the description of Jesus in Rev. 3:14 where it says that Jesus is "the beginning of the creation by God".

And as for the Hebrew word 'qanah', it can mean either to "produce, acquire, create" or "possess". Context is key in finding out which one it means. Bibles which are biased toward the Trinity do not want to render it as "Produce" or something similar because that would mean that Jesus has a beginning, and that would contradict the Trinity doctrine.

Yet, because the context of Prov. 8:22-31 so overwhelmingly supports the translation of the word 'qanah' as "create", even scores of trinitarian bibles have decided to render it as such.

Additional Reading:

Does "Wisdom" at Prov. 8:22-30 refer to the Messiah, and does it say that he was created? (Search For Bible Truths)

Is Proverbs 8:22-31 talking about Wisdom personified instead of Jesus? Why is Wisdom referred to in the feminine gender? (Search For Bible Truths)

Scores of trinitarian bibles have decided to render the word 'qanah' as "create". (Jehovah's Witnesses Questions and Answers)

Prov. 8:22-30 "Wisdom" and Christ (Examining the Trinity)

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Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Jehovah's Witnesses - Are Wearing Beards Discouraged?

It may be noticeable that the wearing of beards by Jehovah's Witnesses in certain territories is not common. Thus, some have made the incorrect conclusion that the wearing of beards is forbidden if you are one of Jehovah's Witnesses.

Jehovah's Witnesses understand that there is nothing in the Bible that says that wearing a beard displeases God or Christ. In fact, during Jesus' time on earth it was customary to wear beards. Christians came first from a Jewish background, and Jewish men wore beards. Beards were a sign of maturity, wisdom, and piety.

Like all other Jews, Jesus was under obligation to keep the whole law. One of the commandments of the Law was: “You must not cut your side locks short around, and you must not destroy the extremity of your beard.” (Lev. 19:27) God doubtless gave Israel this law because among some pagans it was the practice to cut the beard in a certain fashion in worship of their gods. (Jer. 9:26; 25:23) Nevertheless, that law did not mean that a beard was not to be well kept, for in the Near East a well-groomed beard was considered a symbol of dignity and respectability. (2 Sam. 19:24)

Today however, Jehovah's Witnesses, like the early Christians, are concerned with neatness and cleanness, and they strive to dress inconspicuously so that their appearance does not in any way detract from the dignity or the effectiveness of the message they bear. (2 Cor. 6:3, 4) In recent years in many lands a beard or long hair on a man attracts immediate notice and may, in the minds of the majority, classify such a person undesirably with extremists or as rebels against society. God’s ministers want to avoid making any impression that would take attention away from their ministry or hinder anyone from listening to the truth. They know that people are watching true Christians very critically and that to a great extent they judge the entire congregation and the good news by the minister’s appearance as a representative of the congregation.

Local congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses must weigh community sensibilities in determining whether a man with a beard would tend to cause apprehension in the area. Like the apostle Paul, Jehovah's Witnesses certainly have a tradition of yielding their personal preferences "for the sake of the good news". (1 Corinthians 9:19-23) Modern Christian men might reflect on the principle first-century Christian men set who might have preferred to keep their foreskins (with similar justifications), yet yielded to circumcision once they understood that uncircumcision might be an obstacle to those who would hear "the good news". (Acts 16:1-3)

Additional Reading:

BEARD (Insight; pp. 266-267; Watchtower Online Library)

"Would it be proper for Christian men to wear a neatly trimed beard? We all know in biblical times Christian men had them including Jesus." (Jehovah's Witnesses Questions and Answers)

Appearance (Physical) (Search For Bible Truths)

(To those who are not Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs), please remember that if you are looking for the authoritative information about the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society's (WTBTS) Bible-based beliefs and practices, you should look to our OFFICIAL WEBSITE at Numerous publications as well as the New World Translation Bible (NWT) and the very useful Watchtower Online Library can be found there.)

 Defend Jehovah's Witnesses


Friday, January 6, 2012

Why was the New World Translation Bible Originally Printed, and How Accurate is it?

Why was the New World Translation Bible Printed?

There were several reasons why the NWT was originally printed:

1) Most of the other translations used were made by those who were influenced by the pagan philosophies and unscriptural traditions that their religious systems had passed down from long ago as well as other influences,

2) Older and more reliable Bible manuscripts were becoming available,

3) As a result of archaeological discoveries, the Greek language of the first century was becoming more clearly understood, and

4) The languages into which translations are made undergo changes over the years. (For instance, who today really talks like this?: "And he commanded the foremost, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh thee, saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are these before thee?" - Gen. 32:17; KJV)

Jehovah's Witnesses wanted a translation that was of the latest scholarship, one that was without spot by creeds or traditions, a literal translation that faithfully presented what is in the original writings and a translation that would be clear and understandable to modern-day readers. (Read the New World Translation Bible online.)

How Accurate is The New World Translation?

Concerning it's accuracy, the New World Translation has been found to be "one of the most accurate English translations of the New Testament currently available" and is "the most accurate of the [8 major] translations compared." -Truth in Translation: Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament by Jason BeDuhn, associate professor of religious studies at Northern Arizona University, in Flagstaff, Arizona

The comments made by Professor Benjamin Kedar of Israel can be found by clicking on the link below:

Recommended Links to Information and Quotes Praising and Supporting the New World Translation: Scholarly Quotes on the New World Translation (From God's Word)
Advantages of the New World Translation (Jehovah's Witnesses United)
Advantages of the NWT (In Defense of the NWT)
The New World Translation (Pastor Russell)

Accusations Against The New World Translation Hypocritical 

Some have hypocritically accused the New World Translation Bible of inaccuracies, bias, and written by those with poor credentials. When, in reality, what kind of credentials do the writers of most every other modern Bible have? And yet these copyists allowed the insertion the title "LORD" instead of the divine name in most of the nearly SEVEN THOUSAND instances in their 'translation' of the Hebrew Scriptures. Not only is this inaccurate, but it is a purposeful, blatant misuse of God's Name! (Ex. 20:7) The NWT is accurate in that it uses God's Name in all instances found in Scripture. (Also see "Jehovah" in The New Testament.)

Also, (unlike the NWT) most of these other translations used were made by those who were influenced by the pagan philosophies and unscriptural traditions that their religious systems had passed down from long ago as well as other influences. For just one instance, the majority of Bible scholars (including Trinitarian ones) freely admit that 1 John 5:7 in the King James Version is spurious. But Trinitarian scholars and copyists felt compelled to ADD it to the Holy Scriptures because of their trinitarian biases.
(Also see: How Can You Choose a Good Bible Translation?; w08 5/1 pp. 18-22; Watchtower Online Library)

For more, see:

A “Remarkably Good” Translation (w04 12/1 p. 30; Watchtower Online Library)

Comments by Greek Scholars (g 11/07 pp. 12-14; Watchtower Online Library)

Advantages of the “New World Translation” (si pp. 327-331; Watchtower Online Library)

Why Have We Produced the New World Translation? (JW.ORG)

Index of Links and Pages that Defend the New World Translation (Defending The New World Translation)

NWT FAQs (Defending The New World Translation) 

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Monday, January 2, 2012

Why Did The Translators of the New World Translation Bible Choose to Remain Anonymous?

Some Jehovah's Witnesses opposers take great exception to the fact that the NWT translators choose to remain anonymous. They imply cowardice, dishonesty, and incompetence as the motives behind such anonymity. In fact, however, such anonymity has been a part of the Watchtower Society for much of its history and in all phases of its publishing activity. The reason has always been to keep from glorifying any man when it is Jehovah and Jesus who deserve the recognition. Humility is extremely important to any real Christian as the Scriptures clearly teach, and every Jehovah's Witness should be able to produce clear scriptural evidence for his belief in this area.

It should be sufficient to point out what one respected organization says (and does). Yes, the Lockman Foundation states in the preface to their New American Standard Bible: "no work will ever be personalized." (And the jacket of the 1971 Reference Edition of the NASB states even more clearly: "We have not used any scholar's name for reference or recommendations because it is our belief God's Word should stand on its merits.")

And, sure enough, they do not identify their translators. Why? Because, as they write in their preface: "They shall give to the Lord Jesus Christ His proper place, the place which the Word gives Him, and no work will ever be personalized." So when detractors of Jehovah's Witnesses mock the Watchtower Society for its humility, they also mock other respected "orthodox" organizations attempting to follow God's Word in this respect.

Just as a man should be judged by his actions, a Bible should be judged on its accuracy of rendering the Greek and Hebrew texts (not on who translated, nor what any prejudiced source says, nor by comparison to another translation, etc.).

Additional Reading:

Translation and revision of Lev. 23:21 proves that the NWT translators DID know Hebrew (Defending Jehovah's Witnesses)

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